Augustus Caesar is one of the most popular leaders in History. He brought the Roman Empire to its Â“Golden AgeÂ” and left a great impact to civilization. Roman civilization is still evident anywhere else in the world.
Augustus Caesar is one of the most popular leaders in History. He brought the Roman Empire to its “Golden Age” and left a great impact to civilization. Roman civilization is still evident anywhere else in the world.
1.) Augustus Caesar was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus on September 23, 63 BCE (Before Common Era).
2.) It was during his reign as Roman Emperor that Jesus Christ was born.
3.) Augustus Caesar is regarded as the first Roman Emperor although he was never proclaimed as such.
4.) As adoptive son of Julius Caesar, he was called Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus and later Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus.
5.) Augustus Caesar, as described by historians, was unusually handsome.
6.) He had clear, bright eyes and his teeth were wide apart, small, and ill-kept.
7.) Octavius hair was slightly curly and inclining to golden.
8.) His eyebrows met and his ears were of moderate size.
9.) His nose projected a little at the top and then bent ever so slightly inward.
10.) Augustus Caesar’s complexion was between dark and fair.
11.) Octavian, unlike Julius Caesar, was short of stature.
12.) Augustus was not his first name. It’s a title that means ‘majestic’.
13.) The title ‘Augustus’ was awarded to him in 27 BCE by the Roman Senate.
14.) Octavianus was a grandson of the sister of Julius Caesar.
15.) He was named in Julius Caesar’s will as his adopted son and heir.
16.) When Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BCE, Octavianus was only 18 years of age.
17.) A year after Julius Caesar was assassinated – Octavius, Lepidus and Mark Anthony formed the second triumvirate.
18.) The ‘Triumvirate’ was proclaimed as the official government and put to death more than 2,000 people considered enemies.
19.) The Triumvirate defeated Julius Caesar’s murderers in the Battle of Philippi in 42 BCE.
20.) Octavia, the sister of Octavian, married Mark Anthony.
21.) The Roman Empire was divided into 3; the west was ruled by Octavian, the east by Mark Anthony and Africa by Lepidus.
22.) Lepidus was stripped of power for trying to take territory from Octavian.
23.) Mark Anthony deserted Octavia for Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt, thus Octavian and Mark Anthony became bitter enemies.
24.) The combined forces of Cleopatra and Mark Anthony were defeated by Octavius at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE.
25.) By 29 BCE, Octavius is the sole ruler of the Roman Empire.
26.) The Roman Senate awarded him permanently the title ‘Imperatur’ or Commander-in-Chief.
27.) Augustus Caesar was also acknowledged as ‘Princeps’ or Head of State.
28.) “I found Rome a city of bricks and I left it a city of marbles’ is a popular statement uttered by Augustus Caesar.
29.) His reign is known as the ‘Augustan Age’ – the Golden Age of Roman architecture and literature.
30.) He died at the age of 75 on August 19, 14 CE and was succeeded by his adopted and stepson, Tiberius.
31.) The month of August, formerly known as Sextilis in the old Roman calendar, was named in his honor.
32.) His rule for 45 years initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Roman or Roman peace.
33.) Augustus Caesar established the Praetorian Guard and created official police and fire-fighting forces for Rome.
34.) He was declared a god by the Senate and to be worshipped by the Romans.
35.) The Roman Senate gave Octavian the title Augustus in January 27 BCE. Augustus can be translated as “the illustrious one”.
36.) Augustus was a ruthless person. He ordered the execution of hundreds of his enemies. He even ordered the killing of Julius Caesar’s son with Cleopatra – Caesarion.
37.) His ruthlessness mellowed as he grew old. He is considered the greatest Roman emperor.
38.) The body of Augustus Caesar was buried at the Mausuleum of Augustus in Rome, Italy.
39.) Augustus Caesar’s mother was Atia Balba Caesonia, niece of Julius Caesar.
40.) His father died when he was 4 year old and he was raised by his grandmother and Julia Caesaris, Julius Caesar's sister.
41.) Augustus’ father was also named Gaius Octavius and had been Governor of Mascedonia.
42.) The first wife of Octaius was Clodia Pulchra. They were married in 43 BCE but separated in 40 BCE
43.) Octavius divorced Clodia and married Scribonia in 40 BCE. She conceived Octavian’s only natural child, Julia
44.) Julia was born the same day that Augustus Caesar divorced Scribonia to marry Livia Drusilla.
45.) Scribonia and Octavian’s marriage lasted for 2 years. In 38 BCE, he married Livia and their marriage lasted until the day he died.
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